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Title: ST3GAL1 is a target of the SOX2-GLI1 transcriptional complex and promotes melanoma metastasis through AXL
Authors: Pietrobono, Silvia
Anichini, Giulia
Sala, Cesare
Manetti, Fabrizio 
Almada, Luciana L.
Pepe, Sara
Carr, Ryan M.
Paradise, Brooke D.
Sarkaria, Jann N.
Davila, Jaime I.
Tofani, Lorenzo
Battisti, Ilaria
Arrigoni, Giorgio
Ying, Li
Zhang, Cheng
Li, Hu
Meves, Alexander
Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.
Stecca, Barbara
Issue Date: 2020
Project: None 
Understanding the molecular events controlling melanoma progression is of paramount importance for the development of alternative treatment options for this devastating disease. Here we report a mechanism regulated by the oncogenic SOX2-GLI1 transcriptional complex driving melanoma invasion through the induction of the sialyltransferase ST3GAL1. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that ST3GAL1 drives melanoma metastasis. Silencing of this enzyme suppresses melanoma invasion and significantly reduces the ability of aggressive melanoma cells to enter the blood stream, colonize distal organs, seed and survive in the metastatic environment. Analysis of glycosylated proteins reveals that the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a major effector of ST3GAL1 pro-invasive function. ST3GAL1 induces AXL dimerization and activation that, in turn, promotes melanoma invasion. Our data support a key role of the ST3GAL1-AXL axis as driver of melanoma metastasis, and highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting this axis to treat metastatic melanoma.
ISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-19575-2
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