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Title: MECP2 missense mutations outside the canonical MBD and TRD domains in males with intellectual disability
Authors: Bianciardi, Laura
Fichera, Marco
Failla, Pinella
Di Marco, Chiara
Grozeva, Detelina
Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta
Spiga, Ottavia 
Mari, Francesca
Meloni, Ilaria
Raymond, Lucy
Renieri, Alessandra
Romano, Corrado
Ariani, Francesca
Issue Date: 2015
Project: None 
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a nuclear protein highly expressed in neurons that is involved in transcriptional modulation and chromatin remodeling. Mutations in MECP2 in females are associated with Rett syndrome, a neurological disorder characterized by a normal neonatal period, followed by the arrest of development and regression of acquired skills. Although it was initially thought that MECP2 pathogenic mutations in males were not compatible with life, starting from 1999 about 60 male patients have been identified and their phenotype varies from severe neonatal encephalopathy to mild intellectual disability. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a panel of intellectual disability related genes was performed on two unrelated male patients, and two missense variants in MECP2 were identified (p.Gly185Val and p.Arg167Trp). These variants lie outside the canonical methyl-CpG-binding domain and transcription repression domain domains, where the pathogenicity of missense variants is more difficult to establish. In both families, variants were found in all affected siblings and were inherited from the asymptomatic mother, showing skewed X-chromosome inactivation. We report here the first missense variant located in AT-hook domain 1 and we underline the importance of MECP2 substitutions outside the canonical MeCP2 domains in X-linked intellectual disability.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 October 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.118.
ISSN: 1434-5161
DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2015.118
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