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Title: A central role for intermolecular dityrosine cross-linking of fibrinogen in high molecular weight advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) formation
Authors: Colombo, Graziano
Clerici, Marco
Giustarini, Daniela 
Portinaro, Nicola
Badalamenti, Salvatore
Rossi, Ranieri 
Milzani, Aldo
Dalle Donne, Isabella
Keywords: Advanced oxidation protein products; Albumin; Dityrosine; Fibrinogen; Human plasma; Hypochlorous acid; Advanced Oxidation Protein Products; Arginine; Blotting, Western; Cross-Linking Reagents; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Fibrinogen; Humans; Hypochlorous Acid; Lysine; Molecular Weight; Oxidation-Reduction; Protein Carbonylation; Serum Albumin; Tyrosine; Biochemistry; Biophysics; Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 2015
Project: None 
Background: Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are dityrosine cross-linked and carbonyl-containing protein products formed by the reaction of plasma proteins with chlorinated oxidants, such as hypochlorous acid (HOG). Most studies consider human serum albumin (HSA) as the main protein responsible for AOPP formation, although the molecular composition of AOPPs has not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of HSA and fibrinogen to generation of AOPPs. Methods: AOPP formation was explored by SDS-PAGE, under both reducing and non-reducing conditions, as well as by analytical gel filtration HPLC coupled to fluorescence detection to determine dityrosine and pentosidine formation. Results: Following exposure to different concentrations of HOCI, HSA resulted to be carbonylated but did not form dityrosine cross-linked high molecular weight aggregates. Differently, incubation of fibrinogen or HSA/fibrinogen mixtures with HOD at concentrations higher than 150 mu M induced the formation of pentosidine and high molecular weight (HMW)-AOPPs (>200 kDa), resulting from intermolecular dityrosine cross-linking. Dityrosine fluorescence increased in parallel with increasing HMW-AOPP formation and increasing fibrinogen concentration in HSA/fibrinogen mixtures exposed to HOC. This conclusion is corroborated by experiments where dityrosine fluorescence was measured in HOCl-treated human plasma samples containing physiological or supra-physiological fibrinogen concentrations or selectively depleted of fibrinogen, which highlighted that fibrinogen is responsible for the highest fluorescence from dityrosine. Conclusions: A central role for intermolecular dityrosine cross-linking of fibrinogen in HMW-AOPP formation is shown. General significance: These results highlight that oxidized fibrinogen, instead of HSA, is the key protein for intermolecular dityrosine formation in human plasma.
ISSN: 0304-4165
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.09.024
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