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Title: ToF-SIMS and XPS study of ancient papers
Authors: Benetti, Francesca
Marchettini, Nadia
Atrei, Andrea Massimo 
Issue Date: 2011
Project: None 
The surface composition of 18th century papers was investigated by means of ToF-SIMS and XPS. Theaim of the present study was to explore the possibility of using these surface sensitive methods to obtaininformation which can help to determine the manufacturing process, provenance and state of conservationof ancient papers. The ToF-SIMS results indicate that the analyzed papers were sized by gelatinand that alum was added as hardening agent. The paper sheets produced in near geographical areas butin different paper mills exhibit a similar surface composition and morphology of the fibers as shown bythe ToF-SIMS measurements. The ToF-SIMS and the XPS results indicate that a significant fraction of thecellulose fibers is not covered by the gelatin layer. This was observed for the ancient papers and for amodern handmade paper manufactured according to the old recipes.
ISSN: 0169-4332
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.09.063
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