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|Title:||Building materials from Thamusida (Rabat, Morocco): a diachronic local production from the Roman to the Islamic period||Authors:||Gliozzo, Elisabetta
|Keywords:||archaeology; ceramics; construction material; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence; Morocco; Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer; Thamusida||Issue Date:||2011||Project:||None||Journal:||JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE||Abstract:||
A total of 67 bricks and tiles found in different archaeological contexts during excavations at Thamusida have been investigated here. The first analysed set consists of 27 bricks found in the area of an Islamic ceramic workshop, which was active at Thamusida from the 8th century onwards. The second set of 40 bricks and tiles was found mostly in situ. They date to the Roman occupation of the site (1st-3rd century AD). Thirteen of them bear different types of stamps. In addition, two types of clay (7 samples) from the surrounding area were analysed as reference for the materials used in the local ceramic production. The samples were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The results allowed reconstructing two local productions of building materials: one during Roman and one during Islamic times, both using local grey tirs (without any manipulation or temper additions) as raw materials. Imports were further identified, tracing both short- and medium-range trade connections. Banasa could be addressed as a likely production site of bricks stamped QAP and APP, while the bay of Tangiers should be indicated as a likely provenance of bricks stamped C∞ and HADRIAVG. The ratio between local productions and imports changed in the second half of the 2nd century AD. The earlier phase of the settlement used both local and imported building materials, while the local productions seem to completely replace imports in the later phase. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
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