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Title: Low- and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterisation of hyaluronan-based native and sulfated hydrogels
Authors: Barbucci, Rolando
Leone, Gemma 
A., Chiumiento
M., Delfini
Di, Cocco
R., Gianferri
Keywords: Hyaluronan; hydrogel; NMR characterisation
Issue Date: 2006
Project: None 
Hyaluronan-based hydrogels were synthesised using different crosslinking agents, such as 1,3 diaminopropane (1,3-DAP) and 1,6-diaminohexane (1,6-DAE). The hydrogels were sulfated to provide materials (Hyal-1,3-DAP, Hyal-1,6-DAE, HyalS-1,3-DAP and HyalS-1,6-DAE) that were characterised by both high- and low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 13C NMR spectra of the materials were analysed to identify, characterise and study the crosslinking degree of the hydrogels. The crosslinking degree was also determined by potentiometric titration and the effectiveness of the two techniques was compared. Measurements of longitudinal relaxation times (spin–lattice) and of NOE enhancement were used to study the mobility of the hydrogels. Low-resolution NMR studies allowed the determination of the water transport properties in the hydrogels. In addition, the swelling degree for the various hydrogels was calculated as a function of the longitudinal and transversal relaxation times of the water molecules. Lastly, the self-diffusion coefficients of the water in interaction with the four polysaccharides were measured by the pulsed field gradient spin echo (PFGSE) sequence.
ISSN: 0008-6215
DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2006.04.046
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