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Title: Structural analysis and sheep pituitary receptor binding of GnRH and its complexes with metal ions.
Authors: N., D'Amelio
Gaggelli, Elena 
A., Gajewska
H., Kochman
K., Kochman
H., Kozlowski
Z., Latajka
P., Mlynarz
J., Panek
Valensin, Gianni 
Issue Date: 2003
Project: None 
Binding of GnRH and its metal complexes to a sheep pituitary receptor have been investigated showing that Cu(II)–GnRH complex is more effectively bound to the receptor than the metal-free ligand, while Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes are less effective than the metal-free GnRH. Earlier studies have explained reasonably well the complex formation with cupric ion, while in this work extensive 1H NMR measurements have been performed for free gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its complexes with Ni(II) in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) solution. This study shows the high order of organization of the metal-free peptide in DMSO solution with two structured ‘domains’ whose relative orientation is modulated by the mobility of the central glycine. Furthermore, theoretical calculations were performed for the Ni(II)–GnRH complex. The data obtained in this work supports previous studies on the co-ordination of Ni(II) ions with GnRH in aqueous solutions at high pH [J. Inorg. Biochem. 33 (1988) 11] and suggest an experimental procedure to reproduce high pH in DMSO solution. In the Ni(II) complex, the metal ion was found to co-ordinate with four nitrogen atoms inducing a well definite arrangement of aromatic side-chains and a rigid backbone structure.
ISSN: 0162-0134
DOI: 10.1016/S0162-0134(02)00630-X
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