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Title: Antifungal agents. 10. New derivatives of 1-[(Aryl)[4-aryl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]methyl]-1H-imidazole, synthesis, anti-Candida activity and Quantitative Structure-Analysis Relationship studies
Authors: Tafi, Andrea 
R., Costi
Botta, Maurizio 
Corelli, Federico 
Massa, Silvio
A., Ciacci
Manetti, Fabrizio 
M., Artico
Issue Date: 2002
Project: None 
The synthesis, anti-Candida activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies of a series of 2,4-dichlorobenzylimidazole derivatives having a phenylpyrrole moiety (related to the antibiotic pyrrolnitrin) in the α-position are reported. A number of substituents on the phenyl ring, ranging from hydrophobic (tert-butyl, phenyl, or 1-pyrrolyl moiety) to basic (NH2), polar (CF3, CN, SCH3, NO2), or hydrogen bond donors and acceptor (OH) groups, were chosen to better understand the interaction of these compounds with cytochrome P450 14-α-lanosterol demethylase (P45014DM). Finally, the triazole counterpart of one of the imidazole compounds was synthesized and tested to investigate influence of the heterocyclic ring on biological activity. The in vitro antifungal activities of the newly synthesized azoles 10p-v,x-c′ were tested against Candida albicans and Candida spp. at pH 7.2 and pH 5.6. A CoMFA model, previously derived for a series of antifungal agents belonging to chemically diverse families related to bifonazole, was applied to the new products. Because the results produced by this approach were not encouraging, Catalyst software was chosen to perform a new 3D-QSAR study. Catalyst was preferred this time because of the possibility of considering each compound as a collection of energetically reasonable conformations and of considering alternative stereoisomers. The pharmacophore model developed by Catalyst, named HYPO1, showed good performances in predicting the biological activity data, although it did not exhibit an unequivocal preference for one enantiomeric series of inhibitors relative to the other. One aromatic nitrogen with a lone pair in the ring plane (mapped by all of the considered compounds) and three aromatic ring features were recognized to have pharmacophoric relevance, whereas neither hydrogen bond acceptor nor hydrophobic features were found. These findings confirmed that the key interaction of azole antifungals with the demethylase enzyme is the coordination bond to the iron ion of the porphyrin system, while interactions with amino acids localized in proximity of heme could modulate the biological activity of diverse antifungal agents. In conclusion, HYPO1 conveys important information in an intuitive manner and can provide predictive capability for evaluating new compounds.
ISSN: 0022-2623
DOI: 10.1021/jm011087h
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