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Title: Hyaluronic acid and sulfated hyaluronic acid in aqueous solution: effect of the sulfation on the protonation and complex formation with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions
Authors: Magnani, Agnese 
Silvestri, V.
Barbucci, Rolando
Issue Date: 1999
Project: None 
The behaviour of hyaluronic acid (Hyal) and sulfated hyaluronic acid (HyalS) in aqueous solutionwas investigated in terms of protonation and complex formation by thermodynamic and spectroscopictechniques. The presence of the scarcely protonable sulfate groups in the polymer chain provided the HyalSmolecule with a more rigid structure in aqueous solution, allowing this polysaccharide to remain in thestretched conformation even after neutralisation of the carboxylate moieties. The presence of the sulfategroups also increases the basic character of the COO– group. Both Hyal and HyalS were able to form complexeswith Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in aqueous solution. The metal ion has a preferential binding site on these polysaccharides,providing a precise stoichiometry for the metal ion complex. The sulfate groups were notdirectly involved in the coordination of the metal ion, and the stoichiometry of the complex species is notaffected by the presence of these groups. However, by increasing the negative charge on the polymer chain,the sulfate groups are responsible for the electrostatic attraction of the metal ion.
ISSN: 1022-1352
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